School of Molecular Sciences

Complete Publications List

C.A. Angell's Most Recent Publications

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Download a copy of my Recent Publicationslist.(#500-550)

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Updated on March 29, 2020

550. Search for superprotonic characteristics in a protic ionic liquid. Younes Ansari, Kazuhide Ueno and C. Austen Angell Submitted to Advanced Materials.

549 New ionic liquids of ultralow proton activity. C. Austen Angell, ArXiv 2001.01151551

548. Reorientation times for solid state electrolyte solvents and electrolytes from NMR spin lattice relaxation studies. S. K. Davidowski, J. L. Yarger, R. Richert and C. A. Angell, to J. Phys. Chem. Letters. (under revision)

547. Relation of ionic conductivity to solvent rotation times in dinitrile plastic crystal solvents. Stephen Davidowski, Amanda R. Young-Gonzales, Ranko Richert, Jeff Yarger and C. Austen
Angell, J. Electrochem. Soc. (Honor issue for Michel Armand). (in press)

546. Liquid-Liquid  phase transitions in glass-forming systems and their implications for memory technology.Pierre Lucas, Shuai Wei, and C. Austen Angell, Internat. J. App. Glass Science, 11, 236-244, (2020)

545. Lithium-Ion Batteries and Beyond: Celebrating the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry–A Virtual Issue, PV Kamat, JB Goodenough, MS Whittingham, C Siu, J Ding, X Wang, ...Acc. Chem. Res 46 (5), 1053-1061

544. Proton Transfer and Ionicity: An 15N NMR Study of Pyridine Base Protonation.  M Hasani, SA Amin, JL Yarger, SK Davidowski, CA Angell   J. Phys. Chem. B 123 (8), 1815-1821 (2019)

543. A computational investigation of the thermodynamics of the Stillinger-Weber family of models at supercooled conditions, F Ricci, JC Palmer, Y Goswami, S Sastry, CA Angell, PG Debenedetti Molecular Physics, 1-15 (2019)

542.  Phase-change materials: The view from the liquid phase and the metallicity parameter S Wei, P Lucas, CA Angell, MRS Bulletin 44 (9), 691-698 (2019) Invited for special issue.

541. Concepts and conflicts in polymer electrolytes: The search for ion mobility CA Angell, Electrochimica Acta 313, 205-210, (2019)

540. Postspace- a Personal Retrospective (Concluding remarks in the Encyclopedia of Glass, Ed. Pascal Richet (in press)

539. Proton transfer and ionicity: an 15N NMR study of pyridine base protonation, Mohammad Hasani, Samrat A. Amin, Jeffery L. Yarger, Stephen K. Davidowski,* C. Austen Angell* J. Phys. Chem. B 2019, 123, 1815−1821

538. Breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein Relation Above the Melting Temperature in a Liquid Phase-Change Material, Shuai Wei, Zach Evenson, Moritz Stolpe, Pierre Lucas, C. Austen Angell, Science Advances, 2018;4: eaat8632 30 November 2018 online              

537. A liquid-liquid transition in supercooled aqueous solution related to the HDA-LDA phase transition in water Sander Woutersen, Bernd Ensing, Michiel Hilber, Zuofeng Zhao and C. Austen Angell, Science (March 9 2018) DOI: 10.1126/science.aao7049

536. A New Version of the Lithium Ion Conducting Plastic Crystal Solid Electrolyte. Iolanda S. Klein, Stephen K. Davidowski, Jeffery L. Yarger  and C. Austen Angell.  Adv. Energy Mater. 2018, 1801324  DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201801324

535. Polymer electrolytes- some principles, cautions, and new practices. C. Austen Angell, ElectroChimica Acta,Special issue from ISPE-15 250, 368-375 (2017)

534. An inverse Aluminum battery. Putting  the Aluminum in the cathode. Leigang Xue, Sen Xin, John B. Goodenough and C. Austen Angell. ACS Energy Letters. 2, 1534-1538 (2017)

533. Silicon hydrogen sulfates: Solid acids with exceptional conductivities and possible fuel cell applications. Iolanda S. Klein, Stephen K. Davidowski, Jeffery L. Yarger  and C. Austen Angell. J.  Materials Chemistry A, (2017) 5,  14092-14100.   DOI: 10.1039/C6TA10956J.

532. Glass transitions, semiconductor-metal (SC-M) transitions and fragilities in Ge-V-Te (V=As, or Sb) liquid alloys: the difference one element can make. Shuai Wei, Garrett J. Coleman, Pierre Lucas, and C. Austen Angell, Phys. Rev. Applied (revision submitted) arXiv:1610.08164.

531. Inorganic vs. Organic Cation Ionic Liquids and Their Solutions with Alkali Metal Containing Ionic Liquids, T.G. Tucker, S.K. Davidowski, C.A. Angell, Electrochemical Society, 164 (4), H153-H158 (2017).

530. Nanoporous, transparent MOF glasses with accessible internal surface. Yingbo Zhao1, Seung-Yul Lee, Omar M. Yaghi, and C. Austen Angell, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 138, 10818-10821 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b07078.

529.Contrasting dynamics of fragile and non-fragile polyalcohols through the glass, and dynamical, transitions: a comparison of neutron scattering and dielectric relaxation data for sorbitol and glycerol, F. Migliardo, C. A. Angell, S. Magaz, Biochemica et Biophysica Acta, 1861, 3540-3545 (2017).

528. Potential tuning in the S-W system. (i) Bringing Tc,2 to ambient pressure, and (ii) colliding Tc,2 with the liquid-vapor spinodal. C. Austen Angell* and Vitaliy Kapko. J. Stat. Mech., Special Issue on Structure in Glassy and Jammed Systems. DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2016/09/094004.

527. On the Use of a Protic Ionic Liquid with a Novel Cation to Study Anion Basicity, Mohammad Hasani, Jeffery L. Yarger and C. Austen Angell, Chem. Euro. J. Chemistry-A European Journal, 22 (37), 1-9 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/chem.201601428.

526. Excess thermodynamic properties of glassforming liquids: the rational scaling of heat capacities, and the thermodynamic fragility dilemma resolved, Iolanda S. Klein, and C. Austen Angell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 451, 116-123 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2016.06.006.

525. Water: A Tale of Two Liquids, P. Gallo, K. Amann-Winkel, C.A. Angell, M. Anisimov, F. Caupin, C. Chakravorty, T. Loerting, A. Panagiotopoulos, J. Russo, H. Stanley, H. Tanaka, C. Vega se los Heras, Xu Limei, and L. Pettersen, Chem. Rev., 116 (13), 7463-7500 (2016).

524. Advanced High Voltage Aqueous Li-ion Battery Enabled by Water-in-Bisalt Electrolyte. Liumin Suo,[a] Oleg Borodin,[b] Wei Sun,[a] Xiulin Fan,[a] Fei Wang,[a] Chongyin Yang,[a] Tao Gao,[a] Zhaohui Ma,[a] Marshall Schroeder,[b] Arthur von Wald Cresce,[b] Selena M. Russell,[b]Michel Armand,[c] C. Austen Angell,[d] Kang Xu *[b] and Chunsheng Wang *[a] Angewandte Chemie Intern. Ed., 2016, 55, 7136-7141, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201602397.

523. Spectroscopic evidence for a first order liquid-liquid transition to an LDA water-like phase in the supercooling of water-rich ideal aqueous solutions, Sander Woutersen*, Michiel Hilbers* Zuofeng Zhao, and C. Austen Angell# Nature (under review)

522.NMR characterization of ionicity and transport properties for a series of diethylmethylamine based protic ionic liquids. Stephen K. Davidowski, Forrest Thompson, Wei Huang, Mohammad Hasani, Samrat A. Amin, C. Austen Angell, Jeffery L. Yarger*, J. Phys Chem, B 120 (18), 4279-4285

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b01203

521. Apparent First-Order LiquidLiquid Transition with Pre-transition Density Anomaly, in Water-Rich Ideal Solutions, Z. Zhao and C.A. Angell, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 55, 1-5, 2016. International DOI: 10.1002/anie.201510717; German Edition DOI: 10.1002/ ange.201510717.

520. A flexible inorganic fuel cell membrane with conductivity above Nafion, and durable fuel cell operation at 150C. Y. Ansari, T. G. Tucker, W. Huang, I. S. Klein, S.-Y. Lee, J. L Yarger and C.A. Angell* J. Power Sources, 303, 142-149 (2016) 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.10.034.

519. Phase change alloy viscosities down to Tg by Adam Gibbs equation fittings to excess entropy data: a fragile-to-strong transition. Shuai, Wei, Pierre Lucas, and C. Austen Angell, J. Appl. Phys. 118 (3), 034903 (2015).

518. Sulfone-carbonate ternary electrolyte with further increased capacity retention and burn resistance for high voltage lithium ion batteries. L.-G. Zue, S. Y. Lee, Z.F. Zhao and C.A. Angell, J. Power Sources, 295, 190-196 (2015).

517. Physics of the Jagla Model as the Liquid-Liquid Coexistence Line Approaches Horizontal, J Luo, L Xu, CA Angell, HE Stanley, SV Buldyrev - J. Chem. Phys. 142 (22), 224501 (2015).

516. Diffusivity and short-time dynamics in two models of silica. Erik Lascaris, Mahin Hemmati, Sergey V. Buldyrev, H. Eugene Stanley, and C. Austen Angell, J. Chem. Phys. 142 (10), 104506 (2015).

515. Ionic Liquid redox catholyte for high efficiency, low-cost energy storage. Leigang Xue, Telpriore G. Tucker, and C. Austen Angell* Adv. Energy Materials. 2015, 1500271 doi:org.10.1002/aenm.201500271.

514. Forty years of silica simulations. Which way now? C. Austen Angell, Intern. Journal of Appl. Glass Science, Special Issue, 6 [1], 3-14 (2015), DOI: 10.1111/ijag.12112.

513. On the uncertain distinction between fast landscape exploration and second amorphous phase (ideal glass) interpretations of the ultrastable glass phenomenon. C. Austen Angell, J. Non-Crystalline Solids 407 (2015) 246255 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2014.08.044.

512. Ionic Liquids, Superionic glasses, Quasi-Ionic Liquids, Quasi-Liquid Ionics, all with high Conductivities but some with Little Fluidity. Where does the Paradigm End? Electrochem. Transactions ECS Trans. 2014 64(4): 9-20; doi:10.1149/06404.0009e.

511. Approaches to, and problems with, ionic liquid electrolytes for alkali metal electrochemical devices: The case of low-melting chloroaluminate binary solutions. T.G. Tucker and C.A. Angell, J. Electrochem. Soc. printed online Sept. 2014 DOI 10.1149/2.0471412jes.

510. Search for a liquid-liquid critical point in models of silica, Erik Lascaris, Mahin Hemmati, Sergey Buldyrev, H. Eugene Stanley, and C.A. Austen J. Chem. Phys. 140, 224502 (2014); DOI: 10.1063/1.4879057.

509. Supercooled water: Two phases? Nature Materials (News and Views) 13 (June issue), 673 (2014).

508. Enhanced Performance of sulfone, and sulfone-containing, solvents at lithium ion battery electrodes, including the LiNiMnO high voltage cathode, Leigang Xue, Kazuhide Ueno, S.-Y. Lee, C. Austen Angell, J. Power Sources, 262, 123-128, 2014.

507. Enrico Fermi summer school on Water. Water and its relatives: stable, supercooled, and particularly, the stretched states. (Open Lectures), Stacey Meadley and C. Austen Angell, Nuovo Cimento, 2014 (in press), arxiv 1404-4031.

506. The fragility of glassforming liquids: thermal vs athermal systems, and kinetic vs thermodynamic manifestations: problems of conception and quantitation. C. Austen Angell, in Fragility of glass forming liquids Editors: A.L. Greer, K.F. Kelton, S. Sastry Publisher: Hindustan Book Agency, New Delhi, India (700pp) Chapter 1, 2014.

505. Fluctuations, clusters, and phase transitions in liquids, solutions and glasses: from metastable water to phase change memory materials, C. Austen Angell and Zuofeng Zhao, Faraday Discuss., 167, 625, 2013, (concluding lecture). DOI: 10.1039/C3FD00111C.

504. Energy applications of ionic liquids, Douglas R. MacFarlane, Naoki Tachikawa, Maria Forsyth, Jennifer M. Pringle, Patrick Howlett, Gloria D. Elliott, James Davis, Masahiro Watanabe, Patrice Simon and C. Austen Angell, Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 232250 (2014), DOI: 10.1039/c3ee42099j.

503. Measurement of Conductivity and Permittivity on Samples Sealed in NMR Tubes, W. Huang, C.A. Angell, J.L.Yarger, and R. Richert, Rev. Rev. Sci. Inst. 8 (7),  073906, DOI: 10.1063/1.4816134   Published: JUL 2013.

502. A novel, easily synthesized, anhydrous derivative of phosphoric acid for use in electrolyte with phosphoric acid-based fuel cells, Younes Ansari, Telpriore Tucker, and C. Austen Angell, J. Power Sources (2013), pp. 47-51 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.03.003;

501. Glass Transitions and Critical Points in Orientationally Disordered Crystals and Structural Glassformers: (Strong Liquids are More Interesting than we Thought), Text of Opening talk at the 2012 conference on Slow Dynamics Sendai, December 2012, C.A. Angell, M. Hemmati, AIP Conf. Proc. 1518, 9-17 (2013). DOI: 0.1063/1.4794546.

500. Fragile Glassformers: Evidence for a new paradigm and a new relation to strong liquids, C.A. Angell, in Structural Glasses and Supercooled Liquids: Theory, Experiment, and Applications, First Edition. Edited by Peter G. Wolynes and Vassiliy Lubchenko. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

499. Ideal glassformers vs ideal glasses: Crystal-free routes to the glass by potential tuning MD, and laboratory calorimetry, Vitaliy Kapko, Zuofeng Zhao, Dmitry V. Matyushov and C. Austen Angell, (invited for special issue on glass transition) J. Chem.Phys., 138, 12A549 (2013). DOI: 10.1063/1.4794787.

498. Anhydrous superprotonic polymer by superacid protonation of PNCl2, Ansari, Y., Ueno, K., Zhao, Z., Angell, C.A., J. Phys. Chem. C, Vol. 117, Issue 4, pp. 1548-1553 (2013). DOI: 10.1021/jp306302n.

497. Lithium salt solutions in mixed sulfone and sulfone-carbonate solvents: A walden plot analysis of the maximally conductive compositions, Lee, S.-Y., Ueno, K., Angell, C.A., J. Phys. Chem. C, Vol. 116, Issue 45, pp. 23915-23920 (2012); jp3067519.

496.On the activation behavior of supercooled liquid dynamics in their viscous regime Z. Chen, C.A. Angell, R. Richert, Eur. Phys. J. E (2012) 35: 65 (DOI 10.1140/epje/i2012-12065-2).

495. Anhydrous superprotonic polymer by superacid protonation of cross-linked (PNCl2)n, Ansari, Y., Ueno, K., Zhao, Z., Angell, C.A., J. Phys. Chem. C, Vol. 117, Issue 4, pp. 1548-1553 (2013).

493. Glass transitions and critical points in orientationally disordered crystals and structural glassformers: (Strong liquids are more interesting than we thought), C.A. Angell, M. Hemmati, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1518, pp. 9-17 (2013).

492. Anharmonicity of quasilattice modes in glass and superfragile liquid states of decahydro-isoqinoline, M. Plazanet, H. Schober and C.A. Angell, (submitted to J. Chem. Phys.).

491. Ionic Liquids: Past, Present and future, C.A. Angell, Y. Ansari, and Z. Zhao, Faraday Discussion 154, 1-20, (2011) (in press).

490. Protic Ionic Liquids Based on Decahydroisoquinoline: Lost Superfragility and Ionicity-Fragility Correlation, K. Ueno, Z. Zhao, M. Watanabe, C.A. Angell* (accepted).

489. Potential-tuning molecular dynamics studies of fusion, and the questionof ideal glassformers: (I) The Gay-Berne model, V. Kapko, D.V. Matyushov, and C.A. Angell, arxiv.cond-mat.soft physics.chem-phys.

488. High conductivity, and dry proton motion, in guanidinium salt melts and binary solutions, Z. Zhao, K. Ueno and C.A. Angell, J. Phys. Chem. (online).

487. Prigogine and Defay say Relax, C.A. Angell and I.S. Klein, Nature Physics (News and Views) Vol. 7, 750-751, (2011).

486. The glass transition temperature of the P2O5-H2O system revisited, and support for Mishimas conjecture on solvent water at low temperature, H.R. Corti*, F.J. Nores-Pondal, C.A. Angell, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (special issue on Water).

485. On the decoupling of relaxation modes in a molecular liquid caused by isothermal introduction of 2nm structural inhomogeneities, K. Ueno and C.A. Angell, J. Phys. Chem. (published online).

484. Fast and slow components in the crystallization of a model multicomponent system, NaKCa(NO3): the role of composition fluctuations, P. Wen, P. Harrowell and C.A. Angell, J. Phys. Chem. (under revision).

483. Molecular Engineering of the Glass Transition: Glass Forming Ability across a Homologous Series of Cyclic Stilbenes, P. Wen, D. Paraska, R. Baker, P. Harrowell and C.A. Angell. J. Phys. Chem. (2010).

482. From Slags to Molten salts to Ionic liquids- a 50 year Joyride, C.A. Angell, (ECS Bredig Award article). Electrochemical Soc. Transactions, 33 (7) 3-18 (2010).

481. Heat capacity and entropy functions in strong and fragile glassformers, relative to those of disordering crystalline materials, C.A. Angell, Chapter in Hot Topics in Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Ed. Y. Sestak, Springer 2010.

480. Glass transition with decreasing correlation length during cooling of Fe50Co50 superlattice and strong liquids, S. Wei, I. Gallino, R. Busch & C.A. Angell, Nature Physics, 7, 178-182 (2011) online Nov. 28 DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1823 (2010).

479. Relaxation dynamics and ionic conductivity in a fragile plastic crystal, T. Bauer, M. Khler, P. Lunkenheimer, A. Loidl, and C.A. Angell, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144509 (2010).

478. Guest-free monolayer clathrate and its coexistence with two-dimensional high-density ice, J. Bai, C.A. Angell, X.C. Zeng, PNAS, 107, 57185722 (2010) (NSF ackn. OK).

477. Glass transition and fragility in the simple molecular glassformer CS2 from CS2-S2Cl2 solution studies, Z. Zhao, R. Richert and C.A. Angell, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154505 (2010).

476. The Solubility of Hen Lysozyme in Ethylammonium Nitrate/H2O Mixtures and a Novel Approach to Protein Crystallization, N. Byrne and C.A. Angell, Molecules 2010, 15, 793-803; DOI:10.3390/molecules15020793.

475. Soft is Strong, C.A. Angell and K. Ueno, Nature, (News and views) 462, 45-46, (Nov. 2009).

474. Unusual phase behavior of one component systems with two-scale isotropic interactions, S.V. Buldyrev et al., J. Chem. Phys. 21, 504106, (2009).

473. Structure-energy relations in hen egg white lysozyme observed during refolding from a quenched unfolded state, T. Y. Cho, N. Byrne, D.J. Moorec, B.A. Pethica, C.A. Angell and P.G. Debenedetti. Chem. Commun. 4441-4443, (2009).

472. Doped Sulfone electrolytes for high voltage Li-ion cell applications, X. Sun and C.A. Angell Electrochemistry Commun. 11 (2009) 1418142.

471. Response to Comment on Dynamic aspects of the liquid-liquid phase transformation in silicon, [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 104503 (2008)]. N. Jakse, S. Sastry and C.A. Angell, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 247103 (2009).

470. Hydrogen Redox in Protic Ionic Liquids and a Direct Measurement of Proton Thermodynamics, J.A. Bautista-Martinez, L. Tang1, J.P. Belieres, R. Zeller, C.A. Angell, J. Phys. Chem. (in press).

469. Composition dependence of the solid state transitions in NaNO3/KNO3 mixtures, P. Wen, P. Harrowell, N. Byrne, and C.A. Angell. Thermochimica Acta, 486, 27-31 (2009).

468. Protein folding in the protic ionic liquid milieu: from native conformation to fibril, N. Byrne and C.A. Angell, Chimica Oggi-Chemistry Today, 27, 51-53, (2009) (Jan-Feb).

467. The refoldability of selected proteins in ionic liquids as a stabilization criterion, leading to a conjecture on biogenesis, N. Byrne, J.P. Belieres and C.A. Angell, Aust. J. Chem. 62(4), 328333 (2009).

466. Formation, and dissolution, of hen egg white lysozyme amyloid fibrils in protic ionic liquids, N. Byrne and C.A. Angell, Chem. Commun. 1046-1048 (2009), DOI: 10.1039/ B817590J.

465. Electron free energy levels in oxidic solutions: relating oxidation potentials in aqueous and non-aqueous systems, C.A. Angell, J. Solid State Electrochem. (Bockris Festschrift), 13, 981 (2009). DOI: 10.1007/s10008-008-0775-0 (published online) (2009).

464. Model monatomic system with a liquid-liquid critical point and two distinct glassy states, L. Xu, S.V. Buldyrev, N. Giovambattista, C.A. Angell and H.E. Stanley, J. Chem. Phys., 130, 054505 (2009).

463. A Fluorinated Ionic Liquid as a High-Performance Fuel Cell Electrolyte, J. Thomson, P. Dunn, L. Holmes, J.P. Belieres, C.A. Angell, and D. Gervasio, ECS Trans. 13 (28), 21 (2008).

462. Landscape thermodynamics and dynamics of a monatomic glassformer- the modified Stillinger-Weber model, V. Kapko, D. Matyushov and C.A. Angell. J. Chem. Phys. 128, 144505 (2008).

461. Glass formation and glass transition in supercooled liquids, with insights from study of related phenomena in crystals, (based on opening talk ICNAS, Brazil 2007) C.A. Angell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354 (2008) 47034712. ( 2008.05.054.

460. Insights into Phases of Liquid Water from Study of Its Unusual Glass-Forming Properties, C.A. Angell, Science 319, 582, (2008).

459. Protein unfolding, and the tuning in of reversible intermediate states, in protic ionic liquid media, N. Byrne and C.A. Angell, J. Molecular Biology 378, 707-714, (2008).

458. Directed destabilization of lysozyme in protic ionic liquids reveals a new low energy reversibly unfolding (pre-fibril) state, N. Byrne, J.P. Belieres, C.A. Angell,

457. Parallel developments in inorganic, aprotic, and protic ionic liquids: physical chemistry and applications, C.A. Angell, N. Byrne and J.P. Belieres, Accounts of Chemical Research (special issue), 40, 1228-1236, (2007).

456. Prediction of macroscopic properties of protic ionic liquids by ab initio calculations, H. Markusson, J.P. Belieres, P. Johanson, C.A. Angell and P. Jacobsson. J. Phys. Chem. 111, 8717-8723 (2007).

455. Highs and Lows in the density of water, C.A. Angell, Nature Nano (News &Views) 2, 1-4, (2007).

454. Glassformers and viscous liquid slowdown since David Turnbull: Enduring puzzles and new twists, C.A. Angell, (text of Turnbull lecture, MRS, 2006) MRS Bulletin, 33(5), 545-555, May 2008.

453. An electrospray technique for hyperquenched glass calorimetry studies: propylene glycol and dibutyl-phthallate, L. Wang and C.A. Angell, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 38293837 (2007).

452. Glass transition dynamics in water and other tetrahedral liquids: order-disorder transitions vs. normal glass transitions, C.A. Angell, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 205112 (2007).

451. Reversible folding-unfolding, aggregation protection, multi-year stabilization in high concentration protein solutions, N. Byrne, L. Wang, J.P. Belieres, and C.A. Angell, Chem. Commun. 2714-2716, (2007), DOI: 10, 1039/b618943a.

450. *Vitrification of a monatomic metallic liquid, H. Bhat, V. Molinero, V. Solomon, E. Soignard, S. Sastry, J.L.Yarger, and C.A. Angell (Nature, 448(Aug.16), 787-790, (2007).